2015 Goshen County Master Gardener Classes

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The Master Gardener Program

The Master Gardener Program of the University of Wyoming Extension Service (UWE) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) exists to extend the university to the people of Wyoming via volunteer service in horticulture. The Master Gardener Program provides sound, research-based, regionally appropriate horticultural information to the general public. 

Goshen County Master Gardener Club

The Goshen County Master Gardener Club meets every 2nd Tuesday of the month at the Extenion Office and provides an opportunity for socializing as well as involvement in numerous community service projects. These include the local farmers market, the Goshen County Master Gardener Plant Sale as well as helping with yard calls and horticulture questions that come into the office.

Master Gardener Class

The University of Wyoming Extension Service conducts Master Gardener classes in horticultural education open to residents of the Goshen County area. Students learn basic knowledge and competencies in the areas of botany, regionally appropriate plant selection, diagnosis of plant problems and their solutions, lawn and garden cultural practices (including soil testing, fertilizing, watering, etc.) and more. Students who complete this training program, as well as the required 40 hours of volunteer service hours, are then recognized as Master Gardeners.

Master Gardener students will be given approximately 40 hours of classroom instruction to develop basic horticultural knowledge. Eight hours of practical experience in a number of horticultural areas will be provided to assist the student develop competencies under the supervision of experienced Master Gardeners. An additional 40 hours of volunteer work in the community are required to meet program goals and further refine the Master Gardener’s knowledge and competencies. Goshen County’s Master Gardener Club provides trained volunteers to supplement the University of Wyoming Extension Service.

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Master Gardeners provide county residents with information and guidance regarding horticultural problems, environmentally sound horticultural practices such as lawn, garden and ornamental plant problems, Integrated Pest Management and sustainable agriculture. Each year, active Master Gardeners perform community service, through participation in a number of horticultural projects and by providing assistance and consultation to residents of the county with questions regarding horticultural problems.

Classes will be held every Tuesday from 6 to 9 pm at the Goshen County Extension Office beginning on January 20, 2015, ending on April 14th.

If you are interested in taking the class you can obtain an application at the Goshen County Extension Office or download an application here. If you have any questions, please call Caleb Cater at the Goshen County Extension Office at ccarte13@uwyo.edu or (307) 532-2436.

The final schedule is still being finalized, and will be available soon.

Goshen County Extension

Position opening at the Goshen County Extension office!

Office Manager/Youth Show Coordinator

As you may be well aware, Lori Schafer, our long time office manager and youth show coordinator here at the Goshen County Extension office left us in September. We are now looking to fill this position!

Job Description

Essential Duties: Assist UW Extension Educators with overall management and daily operations. Provide leadership and management to the Goshen County Fair Youth Shows. This position will require occasional evening and weekend work and some overnight travel. Specific responsibilities can be found in the Position description.

Preference will be given to applicants with a minimum of two years professional experience, Microsoft Office experience, record maintenance and management experience and fiscal management experience and those with excellent organizational and communication skills. Successful candidate will possess a strong attention to detail and effective problem resolution skills.

Required Materials for application include a completed Employment Application, professional résumé, and cover letter. These must be received by December 8, 2014. The position description and application are also available at the Extension Office.

The deadline for application is December 19, 2014.

With questions, please stop in at the University of Wyoming Extension, Goshen County office in Torrington at 4516 US HWY 26/85 or call (307) 532-2436. You may also contact Megan Brittingham at mbrittin@uwyo.edu.

2014 Farm Bill

2014 Farm Bill Update

Do you have questions about how the new 2014 farm bill will affect you and production on your farm? You are not alone, and there are many factors you need to consider and decisions that need to be made that can have lasting affects on crop insurance and other programs within the farm bill.

To help decipher the new farm bill and what the changes mean to you the University of Wyoming Extension – Sustainable AG & Horticulture team in cooperation with Wyoming Farm Service Agency (FSA), will be offering a series of meetings covering details of the new farm programs.

Highlights include:

Base acre update, yield update, Agriculture Risk Coverage (ARC-CO/IC), Price Loss Coverage (PLC), Supplemental Coverage Option (SCO), Non-insured Crop Disaster Assistance (NAP) buy-up coverage, online decision tools, analyzing information for your farm, and more…

2014 Farm Bill Webinar Series Schedule

DATETIMELOCATION
ADDRESS
12-Dec10 AMWorlandCommunity Center, 1200 Culbertson Ave.
15-Dec10 AMCheyenneLCCC Health Sciences - Rm. 111, 1400 E. College Drive
15-Dec2 PMWheatlandFirst State Bank, 1405 16th St.
16-Dec10 AMTorringtonPlatte Valley Bank, 2201 Main St.
17-Dec10 AMRivertonFremont County Fairgrounds, 1010 Fairgrounds Rd.
17-Dec2 PMWind River CasinoCasino training room, 2 miles south of Riverton
18-Dec10 AMPowellUW Research and Extension Center, 747 Rd. 9
19-Dec10 AMGilletteCampbell County Library - WY Room, 2101 S. 4-J Road

Presenters include:

Dr. Nicole Ballenger, UW Ag & Applied Economics
John Hewlett, UW Farm/Ranch Management Specialist
Farm Service Agency, Farm Program Specialists

For more information or with questions, please contact John Hewlett at hewlett@uwyo.edu or (307) 766-2166; or Caleb Carter at ccarte13@uwyo.edu or at (307) 532-2436.

Cows and sunset

South East Wyoming Beef Production Convention

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SAREC

 A collection of workshops covering the issues affecting profitability of livestock producers 

Goshen County Extension and The James C. Hageman Sustainable Agriculture Research and Extension Center (SAREC) will again be hosting the Southeast Wyoming Beef Production Convention in Torrington in November.

The Convention will be held on Tuesday, November 18th at the Rendezvous Center, on the Goshen County Fair Grounds. Registration will begin at 9:30 am with the program starting at 10. We have had a last minute change in the agenda. Now, the day will begin with a presentation from Marc and Kate Vogel. 

They work with Marc’s family on Vogel Land and Livestock near Ballantine, MT, just east of Billings. They have integrated no-till and cover crop practices into their production, as well as grazing of their cover crops. They are also dealers for Green Cover Seed, located just south of Hastings, NE. For more information, check out this video from a couple years ago, featuring Marc and Kate in the Out on Land Series.

Following lunch, we will hear from Jenna Meeks. Jenna is a graduate student at the University of Wyoming in Laramie, WY. She is looking at the use of winter forage crops to increase the nutrient value of corn stalks for winter grazing.  Her research is ongoing and taking place at the James C. Hageman Sustainable Agriculture Research and Extension Center (SAREC), located near Lingle, WY.

The remainder of the day will consist of a series of concurrent sessions as well as a producer panel after lunch. Some of the session topics will include pasture revitalization, utilizing corn stalks in grazing, feedlot research updates, risk management options, heifer development budgets as well as some tips on preparing for and surviving disaster. A trade show will also be a part of the convention activities.

To wrap up the day, Jim Rob from the Livestock Marketing Information Center (LMIC) in Denver will present on the future market outlook. Cost for the convention is $20 and includes lunch and the trade show. 

Complete convention schedule:

Time

Event/Topic/Speaker

Room

9:30-10:00 Registration Foyer
10:00 Welcome and Introductions – Caleb Carter Rendezvous Main
10:00-10:50 Speakers – Marc and Kate Vogel Rendezvous Main
11:00-11:45
Improving pasture productivity – Jerry Voleski Rendezvous Main
Your Beef Checkoff Dollars at Work: the Beef Ambassador program – Rachel Purdey Brand Room
Silent but deadly: poisonous plants of eastern Wyoming rangelands – Brian Sebade 4-H East
The Use of Sexed semen in the beef industry – Chance Marshall 4-H West
11:45-12:30 Lunch Rendezvous Main
12:30-1:30 Supplementing corn stalk grazing with winter forage crops – Jenna Meeks Rendezvous Main
1:40-2:20
Risk Management for livestock production – John Hewlett Rendezvous Main
Corn stalk grazing research – Aaron stalker Brand Room
Annual Forages: Species, Varieties, and Importance –Anowar Islam 4-H East
Monitoring soil moisture – Caleb Carter 4-H West
2:20-2:45 Break – sponsored by ABS
2:45-3:30
Surviving disaster – Scott Cotton Rendezvous Main
Replacement heifer development budgets – John Ritten Brand Room
Wheat variety trial info – Keith Kennedy 4-H East
Feedlot research update – Matt Luebbe 4-H West
3:45-4:30 Market Outlook – Jim Robb, LMIC Rendezvous Main
4:30-5:00 Door Prizes and Conclusion Rendezvous Main
Registration

Registrations are being taken online for attendees, and vendors interested in the trade show, at: http://bit.ly/sewyobeef

You can also download this brochure and mail it to:

Caleb Carter, 4516 US HWY 26/85, Torrington, WY 82240

For more information call Caleb at the Goshen County Extension office at (307) 532-2436 and we hope to see you in November!

Wyoming Livestock Roundup

 

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Speaking of weed control…

Are you considering weed control this fall? Be sure to read and follow all labels carefully! The label is the law, and applying a pesticide in a way that goes against the label puts you in direct violation. If a product is labeled for a specific pest but not for the  location that you are applying it, then you are off label.

To help you think about how you handle and apply your pesticides and your own pesticide exposure, here is a video from the University of Nebraska Lincoln Extension regarding pesticide safety:

 

To determine what the correct pesticide is for a specific pest and location contact your local weed and pest office or county extension educator. Another great resource is the www.cdms.net. To use this tool, go to the top and select serviceslabels/msds, then select other search options on the left. It will ask you to create a free account. After you have created an account, you will be able to search pesticides by product name, common name, type, crop site, pest, manufacture, state, or a combination of the above. This can help you identify a list of pesticides labeled for use in the location and against the pest that you are targeting. You will also know that it is labeled for use in your state.

2015 Guide for Weed Management
2015 Guide for Weed Management

Another great resource is the Guide for Weed Management in Nebraska. The 2015 edition is available for preorder for $15 plus shipping. We also have the 2014 edition available in our office for $10.

If you are considering the use of any restricted use pesticides be sure to obtain your private pesticide applicators license. There are 3 ways to obtain this license.

  • Go to your local Extension Office and take the online exam or obtain the take home test
  • Attend one of the many private applicator training’s that are offered by UW Extension Educators across the state

These classes are typically offered in January through March and to find one near you go to http://bit.ly/psepcalendar.  For more information on pesticide applicator license requirements or anything related to regulations regarding pesticide application please see http://bit.ly/psepwyo. Or for more information call Caleb at the Goshen County Extension Office at (307) 532-2436 or at ccarte13@uwyo.edu.

Extension Tidbits Winter Gardening Series

You are probably thinking that with fall around the corner and the growing season quickly coming to an end… that you are off the hook in the garden. Well, think again! Now is the time to begin preparations for next year. And to start thinking about how you are going to deal with those weeds you saw popping up this year after all the rain we had. Maybe you are thinking about a new tree or getting a head start on spring by starting seeds indoors?

If any of this sounds interesting, then don’t miss the new series beginning next Wednesday, October 15th. The format will still be a brown bag seminar but will only meet once a month, allowing for more seasonally relevant topics. It will take place from noon to 1 pm, at the extension office, with the presentation running from 12:15 to 12:45 pm, leaving time for socializing and questions.

The first topic will be “fall garden cleanup” presented by Gretchen Wollert, owner of Pleasant Valley Greenhouse in Torrington. She will share tips on what we can do now to make it easier to get planting in the spring. The next meeting will be Wednesday, November 19th and then every 2nd Wednesday through April. Other topics will include tree selection and care, holiday plants, starting plants from seed, organic production and weed control. The series will wrap up with a stump the experts hour on April 8th!

Winter Gardening Series

There is no cost for the sessions. Participants can come to any or all sessions and are encouraged to bring a lunch and an interest in making things grow! With questions or for more information, please contact Caleb Carter at the Goshen County Extension Office at (307) 532-2436.

Fall weed control: a step ahead in the spring

Canada thistle
Canada thistle – Bill Johnson, nps.gov

Did you experience a flush of new and/or more aggressive weeds this summer? You are not alone. The increase in moisture we received this year was a blessing for our productions, but also an increase in weeds as well as some new weeds we haven’t seen in a while. Many of these are perennials and biennials, and fall is a good time to control these persistent  weeds.

It is important to understand their biology, in order to use their own strategy against them. As the weather cools, perennial weeds begin storing carbohydrates in their roots. Herbicides applied at this time will also be taken into the root stores. Some perennials are more sensitive to frost than others, making timing the most important consideration in fall weed control. Be sure to read all labels carefully to determine the best application time for each weed species and location.

Biennial weeds have a two year growth cycle. Spending the first year in a vegetative growth stage and then in the second year bolting and flowering. They are most susceptible in the vegetative growth stage. Both perennials and biennials are prolific seed producers and preventing seed production as well as depleting root food stores can go a long way in controlling them. This can come in the form of tillage, mowing, etc. Herbicide treatments can also be a good control measure.

Following is a small selection of common perennial and biennial weeds to think about controlling this fall.

Perennial weeds

Canada thistle

Canada thistle has extensive root stores, and good control can only be achieved by depleting them. Tillage only makes more plants as each root shoot can regenerate a new plant. Mowing or other mechanical removal can help prevent seed production and deplete root stores. Good control can also be achieved by using glyphosate (Roundup) at the bud to bloom stage. Canada thistle is able to withstand light frosts, so a late fall application of picloram (Tordon) can also provide good control, ensuring more herbicide gets into the roots. For more information on Canada thistle control.

Field bindweed

Field bindweed is a very persistent weed. Control measures must be even more persistent to get ahead of it. For best results incorporate a combination of cultivation, selective herbicides and competitive crops. As with Canada thistle, field bindweed also stores food reserves in its roots. Cultivation can break up these root stores but root pieces can grow new plants, so cultivation must continue.

In South Dakota over 95% control was achieved by cultivating at two week intervals in June and July and three week intervals in August and September. But, due to cost, loss of crop production and soil erosion concerns, continuous tillage is often not practical.

Effective herbicides include 2, 4-D, dicamba (Banvel/Vanquish/Clarity), picloram (Tordon) and glyphosate (Roundup). A succesful herbicide program will also require multiple applications in order to be successful and to get enough into the roots to kill the roots and root buds. Apply herbicides when the stems are at least 12 inches long and the plant is actively growing. For more information on field bindweed control.

Biennial weeds

Musk thistle

Musk thistle spends its first year in the rosettes stage, which is when it is most vulnerable to herbicide treatment. Herbicide options include dicamba (Banvel/Vanquish/Clarity), 2,4-D, or dicamba plus 2,4-D, picloram (Tordon) or aminopyralid (milestone). Treatments are best applied in the fall in the rosettes stage. Though not as effective, there are also options for application up to early flower growth stages. For more information on musk thistle control.

Scotch thistle

Scotch thistle also spends its first year in a rosettes growth stage and is best controlled with herbicides at this time. Herbicides effective in controlling scotch thistle are similar to musk thistle, with the most effective being dicamba and milestone.

Mechanical control can also be effective for both musk and scotch thistle. Removing the top growth below the soil level will kill either species. Be sure to collect and burn any growth removed to prevent any seed spread. Maintaining or planting healthy, thick stands of grass will also help out-compete these invasives. For more information on scotch thistle control.

Conclusion

It is important to remember that if weeds are stressed by a lack of moisture or extreme heat, they will not respond as well to herbicide treatments. These conditions can decrease leaf size, increase waxy coverings and decrease the plants translocation ability. All of which will decrease the effectiveness of the herbicide.

With harvest going on or beginning soon depending on your location, this is a good time to scout your fields and look for any perennial or biennial weeds moving in. The time you spend today will pay big dividends next spring.

More information on fall weed control

If you have a weed that you would like identified or if you want more information on controlling a specific weed bring in a sample to the office, or to your local UW Extension office. Also, see the links below for more information on fall weed control.

Fall noxious weed control:

Barnyards and Backyards article: Fall is a good time for weed management

Perennial weed management:

Getting the most from fall perennial weed management

Disclosure. Common chemical and trade names are used in this publication for clarity by the reader. Inclusion of a common chemical or trade name does not imply endorsement of that particular product or brand of herbicide and exclusion does not imply non-approval.

What can you gain from testing your hay?

Feeding hay near Jackson, WY.
Feeding hay near Jackson, WY.

So by now, you have probably heard the hype about testing the quality of your hay. But why do it? Is it worth the time and money? These are questions that you will have to answer for yourself, but there are some reasons you might want to consider it.

You can find out what you are feeding your animals, or maybe not feeding them. If selling the hay, you will have a better idea what you are selling, making it easier to determine a fair price. Comparing results over multiple years can help you identify trends in your production, such as a decrease in quality as a stand declines, or effects of new management strategies, techniques, varieties, etc.

Sampling technique

But, it is important to remember that the results you get are only as good as the sample provided to the lab. You must be able to account for variation between bales and across the field while minimizing sampler error. To accomplish this, it is important that a sample come from one field and one cutting. Don’t mix forages or cuttings, as the quality can be very different. Most labs now are using near infrared reflectance (NIR) to analyze forage samples for quality. This means that all the hay from one cutting must be represented by a thumbnail sized, ground sample! Often no more than 1/2 a gram. So it is easy to see why your sampling technique and handling are very important.

To account for variation across a lot of hay it is recommended that you take 20 samples, each sample from a different bale. It should add up to about a 1/2 pound sample by the end, all of which is sent to the lab. Samples should always be taken from the center of the bale on the twine side. This way, the sample represents multiple flakes rather than only one or two. If the field is variable or weedy, then more samples should be taken.

To obtain a random sampling, you could randomly choose a bale to sample then walk 15 steps, sample again, walk 5 steps, sample again, walk 20 steps, sample again, etc. Do not specifically choose a bale or leave out a bale. Besides, with 20 samples, it won’t matter that much anyway. Although, if you are sampling hay to feed, leaving out moldy sections from your sampling can help to give you a more accurate idea of what your animals will actually be eating, as they will probably leave that anyway. But if you are selling the hay, then you must include all parts of the lot so as to accurately represent what the buyer is getting.

Coring tool

The next thing to consider is the tool that will be used. To achieve the most accurate sample, a coring tool is your best choice. Simply reaching into a bale and grabbing a handful of hay does not give a good representative sample. It is important that the tool be sharp and between 12″ and 24″ in length. Shorter lengths have been shown to not represent variability in the bale, and longer lengths tend to produce too large a sample. if the sample is too large, the lab might not grind all of it. This can lead to non-random sampling and bias. The diameter should also be between 5/8 and 3/4 inches, for the same reasons. For a list of recommended tools, see the National Forage Testing Association website listing:

http://bit.ly/nftahayprobes

Many of the County extension offices across Wyoming have hay probes that can be checked out in order to take your samples as well, if you would rather not purchase one.

Sample preparation

Many labs offer plastic sealable bags that have a place for you to identify the forage type, cutting, date, location and owner. If not, then combine the sample into a polyethylene freezer bag with the info written on it. Avoid placing the samples in direct sunlight, keep cool and send them to the lab as soon as possible.

More information

In Goshen County, we send all samples into Ward Laboratories in Kearney, NB. The cost is about $15 per sample and we have sealable plastic bags from the lab as well as a core sampler for checkout. If you are outside of Goshen County, contact your local extension office to see what their practice is. You can find contact info here:

http://bit.ly/uwextcountyoffs

For more information on forage sampling technique:

http://bit.ly/uidahoforagetesting

For help interpreting forage quality test results:

http://bit.ly/interpforagequal

YouTube video:

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Monitor soil moisture to increase irrigation efficiency – What options do you have?

Monitoring soil moisture can increase irrigation efficiency by reducing runoff and deep drainage losses and by avoiding crop water stress. Many methods exist that reflect the amount of money invested, level of technology used dependent on irrigation method, and management strategies and goals.

Important Considerations

Consider the irrigation method and the level of control you have on the amount and timing of irrigations. The more control, the more detailed information that can be used. Consider the crops and soils. Some devices work better in annual than perennial crops. Some are better in coarse soils versus fine soils. Can you go to the field every couple of days? Or do you want a more automated system? Different methods may give slightly different readings; they will usually track changes in soil moisture similarly. Look at trends as soil moisture changes, and remember, it is as much an art as a science.

What Options Exist?

The least-expensive technique is the look-and-feel method. The feel and appearance of soil changes with variations in soil moisture and texture, and with practice can be estimated to within about 5 percent. Take walnut-sized soil samples at 1-foot increments for the root zone of the crop and in at least three sites depending on soil and crop variability. Use a soil probe for best results – especially for deep soil samples. For more information, refer to the Natural Resources Conservation Service document “Estimating Soil Moisture by Feel and Appearance” http://bit.ly/soilfeel.

Soil moisture determination by feel
Soil moisture determination by feel
Tensiometers

A meter or sensor is a step up. These include tensiometers or electrical resistance blocks. A tensiometer is an air-tight, waterfilled tube with a porous ceramic tip that is stuck in the ground. On the top is a vacuum gauge. The device measures soil water tension displayed in centibars (cb). With an effective range of 0 to 80 cb, these are best suited for coarse soils or horticultural applications in which the soil is not allowed to dry excessively. With no cables or buried blocks, they are good for cultivated fields and annual crops.

Tensiometers installed in a field
Tensiometers installed in a field

Although easy to use, tensiometers need to be serviced regularly. This means filling with water and using a pump to create the vacuum. Price is based on length, ranging from 6 to 48 inches, and $45 to $80 respectively.

Electrical Resistance Blocks

Electrical resistance blocks come in two main varieties: gypsum blocks and granular matrix sensors. Both absorb water from the surrounding soil and work off the principle water conducts electricity; there is less electrical resistance with increased soil moisture.

watermark blocks and handheld metter
Watermark blocks and handheld meter

Gypsum blocks range from $5 to $15 apiece and last about a year. Granular matrix sensors range from $25 to $35 apiece and last three to seven years. The most important factor in reliability is good soil contact, and is the number one reason for poor performance. Install the blocks/sensors in a representative location in the field, minimizing soil compaction and damage to canopy cover.

There are two options to read electrical resistance blocks: a handheld meter or a data logger. Handheld meters cost $150 to $600, are portable, can be used to monitor multiple locations, and have no buried wires. A producer might have to wade through a wet crop to where the sensors are buried to take the reading. This process only gives real-time readings; there are no readings showing the change in soil moisture over time.

Data logger
Data logger
Solar Powered data logger
Solar powered data logger

Data loggers cost $60 to $500, read several sensors on a regular schedule, store the data, and graph it over time. Soil moisture trends can be quickly seen. Buried wires are required, so these may be more suited to perennial crops.

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You also have the option to automate the sensors and have the information transmitted to a data logger by radio, WiFi, etc.

Soil moisture monitoring systems are becoming more practical and feasible for the average producer as technology advances and prices fall. Still, they should not replace personal observations and experience. Rather, the new information can be combined with personal observations to make better irrigation decisions.

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Green and yellow foxtail control in alfalfa

All the rain and the cool nights is making me think about fall here in Goshen County! With that fall is  a good time to think about weed control in alfalfa. I’ve been getting calls about green and yellow foxtail control in alfalfa recently and wanted to provide some food for thought on the topic. Green foxtail has adapted well to the multiple harvest intervals of alfalfa, able to produce viable seed within a typical cutting cycle. Combine this with the fact that most vegetative growth is below the swather and the case could be made that green and yellow foxtail are two of the most problematic summer weeds in alfalfa.

Controlling green foxtail in your alfalfa stand almost inevitably requires herbicide application. But, before you get out your sprayer lets determine if it will be worth your efforts and monetary expense. Healthy alfalfa stands are able to branch out and fill out open spaces in the field following weed control, but if your stand is older or thin, it may not be worth it to invest time and money into a weed control program.

To estimate stand density, choose 3 to 4 representative locations in the field and mark off a 2-square foot area in each.  Count the number of crowns and divide by two to get the number of plants per square foot. Plant densities of 3 to 4 or more plants per square foot under irrigated conditions would be considered healthy while 2 to 3 plants per square foot is okay in dryland. Plant densities below these thresholds may not warrant much effort and rotating to another crop may be the better option, as little yield response will be seen.

Chemical control

If considering chemical control, then you need to look at when you will be applying. Will this be a dormant application in late fall? Or are you trying to knock back weeds between cuttings? Though weed control is always more effective on seedlings and immature weeds, there are some options for controlling green foxtail mid summer, in between cuttings. For in-season control clethodim, the active ingredient in Select Max, has proven to be very effective. Rated at 85 to 90% control in the 2014 Guide for Weed Management, available at the Goshen County Extension Office or online from the University of Nebraska Extension for $10. For best results, apply to grass prior to cutting but if this is not possible irrigate once following cutting to encourage new growth and allow grass to grow to the minimum recommended size prior to application. Select Max can also be tank mixed with broadleaf herbicides. Please refer to the label for specific recommendations. Do not graze or harvest for 15 days following application. The cost range for Select Max is $8.50 to $15.25.

For preemergent control, Prowl H20 applied in the early spring prior to weed emergence has also shown to provide very good control of green foxtail, at 85 to 90%. There is a preharvest interval of 28 days and the alfalfa must be less than 6 inches in height at the time of application. if grown for seed, the harvest interval increases to 50 days. Best if incorporated through rainfall or irrigation. Rate dependent on soil type and organic matter present, so check the label. The cost range for Prowl H20 is $6.75 to $12.75.

Roundup will also provide good control, if the alfalfa is roundup ready. Apply once at the 2nd trifoliate and then again 2 weeks later. Cost ranges from $3.75 to $7.50.

Conclusion

Alfalfa is a strong competitor with weeds when a healthy and thick stand is maintained. As the stand ages and plant densities decline then assessment needs to be made to determine if weed control will have economic returns through increased yield. Assessing plant density can be a good method for estimating feasibility of weed control.

Green and yellow foxtail can be problematic in alfalfa, but there are options to control these weeds and increase stand health, longevity and productivity. Determine the best time to apply based on your management strategy and the time of year and then choose the best herbicide option. Many herbicides can also be tankmixed with broadleaf herbicides to extend your weed control spectrum. And, whenever you use any pesticides, please remeber to always read and follow all label recommendations!

Enjoy the moisture and good luck with your green/yellow foxtail control! If you have any further questions, please contact Caleb Carter at (307) 532-2436 or at ccarte13@uwyo.edu.